The subcontracted study was performed by Warp Drive Metrics, Las Vegas, NV, under Contract No. F04611-99-C-0025, for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)/Space and Missile Propulsion Division, Propellant Branch (PRSP), Edwards AFB, CA. The Project Manager for AFRL/PRSP was Dr. Franklin B. Mead, Jr.
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Highlights from the Teleportation Study
The following text below, minus titles, are highlights directly from the Study Documentation. It was written by Eric W. Davis, Ph.D., FBIS of Warp Drive Metrics, Las Vegas, NV.
TELEPORTATION PHYSICS STUDY OBJECTIVES AND TASKS
This study was tasked with the purpose of collecting information describing the teleportation of material objects, providing a description of
teleportation as it occurs in physics, its theoretical and experimental status, and a projection of potential applications. The study also consisted of a search for teleportation phenomena occurring naturally or under laboratory conditions that can be assembled into a model describing the conditions required to accomplish the transfer of objects.
This included a review and documentation of quantum teleportation, its theoretical basis, technological development, and its potential applications. The characteristics of teleportation were defined and physical theories were evaluated in terms of their ability to completely describe the phenomena. Contemporary physics, as well as theories that presently challenge the current physics paradigm were investigated. The author identified and proposed two unique physics models for teleportation that are based on the manipulation of either the general relativistic spacetime metric or the spacetime vacuum electromagnetic (zero-point fluctuations) parameters.
Naturally occurring anomalous teleportation phenomena that were previously studied by the United States and foreign governments were also documented in the study and are reviewed in the report. The author proposes an additional model for teleportation that is based on a combination of the experimental results from the previous government studies and advanced physics concepts. Numerous recommendations outlining proposals for further theoretical and experimental studies are given in the report. The report also includes an
extensive teleportation bibliography.
The Teleportation Physics Study is divided into four phases. Phase I is a review and documentation of quantum teleportation, its theoretical basis, technological development, and its potential application. Phase II developed a textbook description of teleportation as it occurs in classical physics, explored its theoretical and experimental status, and projected its potential applications. Phase III consisted of a search for teleportation phenomena occurring naturally or under laboratory conditions that can be assembled into a model describing the conditions required to accomplish the disembodied conveyance of objects.
The characteristics of teleportation were defined, and physical theories were evaluated in terms of their ability to completely describe the phenomenon. Presently accepted physics theories, as well as theories that challenge the current physics paradigm were investigated for completeness. The theories that provide the best chance of explaining teleportation were selected, and experiments with a high chance of accomplishing teleportation were identified. Phase IV is the final report.
The concept of teleportation was originally developed during the Golden Age of 20th century science fiction literature by writers in need of a form of instantaneous disembodied transportation technology to support the plots of their stories. Teleportation has appeared in such SciFi literature classics as Algis Budry’s Rogue Moon (Gold Medal Books, 1960), A. E. van Vogt’s World of Null-A (Astounding Science Fiction, August 1945), and George Langelaan’s The Fly (Playboy Magazine, June 1957). The Playboy Magazine short story led to a cottage industry of popular films decrying the horrors of scientific technology that exceeded mankind’s wisdom: The Fly (1958), Return of the Fly (1959), Curse of the Fly (1965), The Fly (a 1986 remake), and The Fly II (1989).
The teleportation concept has also appeared in episodes of popular television SciFi anthology series such as The Twilight Zone and The Outer Limits. But the most widely recognized pop-culture awareness of the teleportation concept began with the numerous Star Trek television and theatrical movie series of the past 39 years (beginning in 1964 with the first TV series pilot episode, The Cage), which are now an international entertainment and product franchise that was originally spawned by the late genius television writer-producer Gene Roddenberry.
Because of Star Trek everyone in the world is familiar with the “transporter” device, which is used to teleport personnel and material from starship to starship or from ship to planet and vice versa at the speed of light. People or inanimate objects would be positioned on the transporter pad and become completely disintegrated by a beam with their atoms being patterned in a computer buffer and later converted into a beam that is directed toward the destination, and then reintegrated back into their original form (all without error!). “Beam me up, Scotty” is a familiar automobile bumper sticker or cry of exasperation that were popularly adopted from the series.
However, the late Dr. Robert L. Forward (2001) stated that modern hard-core SciFi literature, with the exception of the ongoing Star Trek franchise, has abandoned using the teleportation concept because writers believe that it has more to do with the realms of parapsychology/paranormal (a.k.a. psychic) and imaginative fantasy than with any realm of science. Beginning in the 1980s developments in quantum theory and general relativity physics have succeeded in pushing the envelope in exploring the reality of teleportation. A crescendo of scientific and popular literature appearing in the 1990s and as recently as 2003 has raised public awareness of the new technological possibilities offered by teleportation.
As for the psychic aspect of teleportation, it became known to Dr. Forward and myself, along with several colleagues both inside and outside of government, that anomalous teleportation has been scientifically investigated and separately documented by the Department of Defense. It has been recognized that extending the present research in quantum teleportation and developing alternative forms of teleportation physics would have a high payoff impact on communications and transportation technologies in the civilian and military sectors. It is the purpose of this study to explore the physics of teleportation and delineate its characteristics and performances, and to make recommendations for further studies in support of Air Force Advanced Concepts programs
LIST OF DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE STUDY CONDUCTED
- Entanglement of Atoms (Hagley et al., 1997; Sackett et al., 2000): EPR entanglement at the level of atoms has been experimentally demonstrated using rubidium atoms prepared in circular Rydberg states (i.e., the outer electrons of the atom have been excited to very high energy states and are far from the nucleus in circular orbits). The experimental apparatus produces two entangled atoms, one atom in a ground state and the other atom in an excited state, physically separated so that the entanglement is non-local. And when a measurement is made on one atom, let us say the atom in a ground state, then the other atom instantaneously presents itself in the excited state – the result of the second atom wave function collapse, thus determined by the result of the first atom wave function collapse. This work is now evolving towards the demonstration of entanglement for molecules and larger entities followed by teleportation of their states. Bose and Home (2002) have improved on this concept by proposing a single, simple generic method by which any atoms, ions and macroscopic objects can be entangled and teleported.
- Teleportation of an Atomic State via Cavity Decay (Bose et al., 1999; Sackett et al., 2000): It has been shown how the state of an atom trapped in a cavity can be teleported to a second atom trapped in a distant cavity simply by detecting photon decays from the cavities.
- Biological Quantum Teleportation (Mavromatos et al., 2002): There are several obstacles to teleporting large complicated objects, especially biological entities. Decoherence is the primary obstacle. That is because observable quantum effects in biological matter is thought to be strongly suppressed due to the macroscopic nature of most biological entities and the fact that such systems live at near room temperature, and there is always contact between biological entities and the environment (the source of decoherence). These conditions result in very fast collapse of pertinent quantum wavefunctions to one of the allowed classical states of the biological entity. Mavromatos et al. (2002) propose a daring model that predicts dissipationless energy transfer along shielded macromolecules at near room temperatures as well as quantum teleportation of states across microtubules and perhaps neurons. It is proposed that under certain circumstances it is in principle possible to obtain the necessary isolation against environmental decoherence, so that meso/macroscopic quantum coherence, and entanglement extending over scales that are larger than the atomic scale, may be achieved and maintained for times comparable to the characteristic times for biological and cellular processes. Microtubules are comprised of tubulin that is a common polar protein found in the cytoskeleton of eukariotic cells, which is especially enriched in brain tissue. The model treats microtubules as quantum mechanically isolated high-Q QED cavities, exhibiting properties analogous to those of electromagnetic cavities routinely used in quantum optics. The model builds a microtubule network that achieves quantum teleportation of coherent quantum states, leading to decoherence-resistant bulk quantum information processing and computing within the biological matter. It is speculated that the model can explain how consciousness works, and how the brain processes and computes information.
- Teleportation of a laser beam with embedded radio signal (Bowen et al., 2003): The teleportation of a laser beam from one part of a lab to another has been demonstrated. Investigators embedded a radio signal into a laser beam, then disintegrated the beam and reassembled it a meter away, virtually instantaneously. The laser beam was destroyed in the teleportation process, but the radio signal survived. The laser light at one end of an optical communications system was disassembled and its replica was recreated elsewhere in the lab. Even though the laser beam did not survive teleportation, its encoded message did. This system could be used to transport secure data, such that it could become possible to construct a perfect cryptography system. When two parties want to communicate with one another, one can enable the secrecy of the communication o be absolutely perfect.
- Entanglement and Teleportation of a Macroscopic Ensemble of Atoms (Julsgaard et al., 2001): Expanding upon the earlier work of Hald et al. (1999) and Sackett et al. (2000), investigators experimentally demonstrated the entanglement of two macroscopic objects, each consisting of a cesium gas sample containing ≈ 1012 atoms. Entanglement is generated via interaction of the samples with a pulse of light, which performs a non-local Bell measurement on the collective spins of the samples. The entangled spin-state can be maintained for 0.5 milliseconds. The teleportation of macro-ensemble atom quantum states is expected to follow this experiment. This work is evolving towards the experimental demonstration of the Bose and Home (2002) proposal, which proved that there is a single generic process that can entangle and teleport any atoms, ions and macroscopic objects.
- Entanglement/teleportation of internal state and external motion information of atoms (Opatrný and Kurizki, 2001):Investigators propose an experiment for transmitting an atom’s full information, including its “external” states, such as its energy of motion. This procedure replicates the quantum features of the external motion of a particle. For example, if particle-tobe-teleported C yielded a diffraction pattern after passing through two slits, then the same pattern would be produced by particle B, which receives the teleported information. The researchers propose the following idea: Dissociate a very cold molecule with a laser pulse into two atoms (called A and B). Then manipulate the two atoms so that they become entangled: each one is in a fuzzy state individually, but has a precisely defined relationship with its partner. Then let one of the entangled particles (such as A) collide with particle C, whose unknown state should be teleported. After their collision, the momentum values of the collision partners A and C are measured. With that information, the researchers know how to “kick” and deflect atom B, so that the motion of B precisely emulates that of particle C. The investigators say that state-of-the-art equipment for studying atomic collisions and quantum effects makes this experiment difficult, but feasible, to do. If this proposal proves to be correct, then the implication is that it will become possible to experimentally expand this concept to the teleportation of a large ensemble of atoms, such that the entire physical motion and quantum states of the ensemble can be teleported.
- Laser-like Amplification of Entangled Particles and Entangled-Photon Lasers (Lamas-Linares et al., 2001): Entangled particles are notoriously difficult to create in bulk. To create entangled photons, for example, researchers use the parametric down-conversion technique to send laser light through a barium borate crystal. Passing through the crystal, a photon sometimes splits into two entangled photons (each with half the energy of the initial photon). However, this only occurs for one in every ten billion incoming photons. To increase the yield, researchers added a step: they put mirrors beyond the crystal so that the laser pulse and entangled pair could reflect, and have the chance to interact. The entangled pair and reflected laser pulse interfere constructively to generate fourfold more two-photon pairs or interfere destructively to create zero pairs. Following these steps, the researchers increased production of two-photon entangled pairs, and also of more rare states such as four-photon entangled quartets. This achievement could represent a step towards an entangled-photon laser, which would repeatedly amplify entangled particles to create greater yields than previously possible, and also towards the creation of new and more complex kinds of entangled states.
HYPOTHESIS BASED ON MATHEMATICAL GEOMETRY
The Chinese researchers reported in their teleportation experiments that high-speed photography/videotaping recorded test specimens physically “melding” or blending with the walls of sealed containers, and in a different series of experiments the test specimens would simply disappear from inside the container only to reappear at another location (after seconds to several minutes of time transpired). They also reported in the series of radio micro-transmitter experiments that there were large fluctuations in the intensity (in both amplitude and frequency) of the monitored signal to the effect that it would either completely disappear or become extremely weak (to the extent that the monitoring instruments could scarcely detect it); and they discovered that there was a definite correlation between the change in strength (i.e., radical frequency shifts were observed) of the monitored radio signal and the teleportation of the radio micro-transmitter, such that the weak or absent signal indicated that the specimen was “nonexistent” (or in an altered physical state) during teleportation. This data is important because without the aid of electronic monitoring instruments, the average person’s sensory organs and usual methods of detection are temporarily unable to perceive the test specimen’s (ambiguous) existence during the teleportation process. This data offers an important clue on what the teleportation mechanism is.
It is beyond the scope of this study to propose a complete self-consistent physics theory of consciousness/mind, which explains how the mind can activate p-Teleportation and related psychotronics phenomena. This topic has been under study in recent decades by a legion of medical science, bio- and neuro-physiology, psychology, mathematics, philosophy, and physics experts. Many different theories with varying degree of theoretical maturity and self-consistency have been proposed over the years, and most of them have not yet been experimentally tested for various reasons. However, some first-order experimental work has been done (Mitchell, 1974b; Targ and Puthoff, 1977; Wolman et al., 1986; Radin, 1997; Tart et al., 2002). Ironically, quantum mechanics theory, and the related physics of quantum entanglement and teleportation, has become the primary focus of all of the physics theories of consciousness/psychotronics that have been recently proposed (see for example, Shan, 2003). Wolman et al. (1986) and Radin (1997) provide a review and discussion on recent theories and experiments that are based on quantum physics theory (see also, Walker, 1974; Targ and Puthoff, 1977; Mitchell, 1999, and
the references cited therein; Tart et al., 2002).
It appears that the physics of q-Teleportation (Chapter 3) has tremendous relevance to the physics of p-Teleportation and psychotronics.
In the following I propose a parsimonious first-order hypothesis that can explain the gross features of both the Chinese p-Teleportation data and the other reported p-Teleportation phenomena. But I will refrain from including any role that might be played by quantum phenomena since the scientific community has not yet settled that particular issue. (However, it is apparent that quantum theory and
quantum phenomena will likely play a key role in a formal physics theory of PK and psychotronics.)
- Fact 1: The mature discipline of mathematical geometry developed the properties of higher dimensional spaces (Reichenbach, 1957; Manning, 1977; Rucker, 1977). An example of one such property that is of relevance to the hypothesis: One can visualize a four-dimensional world by using color as the 4th dimension. We can think of a three-dimensional world, whereby objects pass through one another if their colors (i.e., four-dimensional locations) are different (Reichenbach, 1957). For example, color can be used as a 4th dimension to see how a knot in three-dimensions can be untied in a 4th spatial dimension without moving the ends of the cord. That is because a cord cannot stay knotted in four-dimensional space, because the extra degree of freedom will cause any knot to slip through itself. Two other interesting and relevant examples are that the links of a chain may be separated unbroken in the 4th dimension, and a flexible sphere may be turned inside out without tearing in the 4th dimension (Manning, 1977; Rucker, 1977).
- Proposition 1 and Fact 2: It has been proposed that our space actually possesses a slight fourdimensional hyperthickness, so that the ultimate components of our nervous system are actually higher dimensional, thus enabling the human mind/brain to imagine four-dimensional space (Hinton, 1888, 1904; Rucker, 1977). If this is the case, then the three-dimensional nets of neurons that code thoughts in our brain may form four-dimensional patterns to achieve fourdimensional thought. The “bulk” space in 3-brane theory (see Section 4.1), and experimental data from the Remote Viewing program (see Section 5.1), provide support for this concept. Can
we see into the 4th dimension and have four-dimensional thoughts? Yes, we can. Proof (see, Rucker, 1977, 1984): If you look at a Necker cube for a while, it spontaneously turns into its mirror image and back again. If you watch it do this often enough, the twinkling sort of motion from one state to the other begins to seem like a continuous motion. But this motion can only be continuous if it is a rotation in four-dimensional space. The mathematician August F. Möbius discovered in 1827 that it is in fact possible to turn a three-dimensional solid object into its mirror image by an appropriate rotation through four-dimensional space (a.k.a. hyperspace rotation). Thus, it is actually possible for our minds to perform such a rotation. Therefore, we can actually produce four-dimensional phenomenon in our minds, so our consciousness is four-dimensional. Rucker (1984) shows another dramatic example of being able to see into the 4th dimension via a “Neck-A-Cube.”
- Fact 3: Another property of higher dimensional geometry (Reichenbach, 1957; Rucker, 1977, 1984) is that one can move through solid three-dimensional obstacles without penetrating them by passing in the direction of the 4th (spatial) dimension. The 4th dimension is perpendicular to all of our normal three-dimensional space directions, and so our three-dimensional enclosures have
no walls against this direction.
- Conclusion and Hypothesis: Therefore, the results of the Chinese p-Teleportation experiments can simply be explained as a human consciousness phenomenon that somehow acts to move or rotate test specimens through a 4th spatial dimension, so that the specimens are able to penetrate the solid walls/barriers of their containers without physically breaching them. No real dematerialization/rematerialization of the specimens takes place. The intensity fluctuations of the radio micro-transmitter specimen’s electromagnetic signal, and the apparent blending of the other specimens with the walls of their containers, represent the passage of the specimens through a 4th spatial dimension. During teleportation the radio signals emitted by the micro-transmitter became weak/non-existent and fluctuated, because they were spreading out into the 4th dimension and became undetectable in our three-dimensional space. The weak signals that were (“barely”) detected represent the leakage of a portion of the radio signal back into our three-dimensional space from the 4th dimension during teleportation. The observed blending of the other specimens with the walls of their containers is how the movement/rotation of the specimens through the 4th dimension was visually interpreted by the mind (along the lines of the Necker cube or Neck-ACube examples).
RELATIVISTIC DEFINITION OF NEGATIVE OR EXOTIC ENERGY
We saw in equations (2.10a-c) that the surface energy and stress-tension densities of the material required to create and thread a traversable wormhole must be “negative.” For surface stress-energy, and volume stress-energy in general, this is “negative” in the sense that the material we must deploy to generate and thread the traversable wormhole must have an energy density (ρc 2 , ρ = mass density) that is less than the stress-energy density (τ), or we can write this condition as: mass-energy ρc 2 ≤ stress-energy τ.
On the basis of this condition, we call this material property “exotic.” Therefore, the term “negative” is just a misnomer in this context. The condition for ordinary, non-exotic forms of matter that we are all familiar with is mass-energy ρc 2 > stress-energy τ. This condition represents one version of what is variously called the weak (WEC), null (NEC), average (AEC), dominant (DEC), strong (SEC) or “standard” energy conditions (that are mere hypotheses!), which allegedly forbid negative mass-energy density and gravitational repulsion (antigravity) between material objects to occur in nature. Hawking and Ellis (1973) formulated these energy conditions in order to establish a series of mathematical proofs in their study of the application of general relativity theory to cosmology and black hole physics.
However, there are general theorems of differential geometry that guarantee that there must be NEC violations (meaning exotic matter-energy is present) at a wormhole throat (Visser, 1997). In view of this, it is known that static radial electric or magnetic fields are borderline exotic when threading a wormhole, if their tension were infinitesimally larger, for a given energy density (Herrmann, 1989; Hawking and
Ellis, 1973). Other exotic (energy condition violating) matter-energy fields are known to be squeezed quantum states of the electromagnetic field and other squeezed quantum fields (see Section A.2 for the discussion on squeezed quantum states), gravitationally squeezed vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy (see Section 2.3 for the discussion on Gravitationally Squeezed Vacuum Energy), Casimir (electromagnetic zero-point) energy and other quantum fields/states/effects.
These examples represent forms of matter-energy that possess negative energy density. Since the vacuum is defined to have vanishing energy density, anything possessing less energy density than the vacuum must have a negative energy density. With respect to creating wormholes, these have the unfortunate reputation of alarming physicists. This is unfounded since all the energy condition hypotheses have been experimentally tested in the laboratory and experimentally shown to be false – 25 years before their formulation (Visser, 1990 and references cited therein).
Further investigation into this technical issue showed that violations of the energy conditions are widespread for all forms of both classical and quantum matter-energy such as planets, stars, black holes, neutron stars, people, space dust clouds, etc. (Davis, 1999b; Barcelo and Visser, 2002). In addition, Visser (1995) showed that all (generic) spacetime geometries violate all the energy conditions. Violating the energy conditions commits no offense against nature.
SQUEEZED QUANTUM STATES AND NEGATIVE ENERGY
In quantum mechanics the energy (E) and frequency (ν) of a quantum oscillator system, such as electromagnetic radiation (or light), are interchangeable via the Planck relation E = hν (h = 2πħ). And from the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty principle, we know that the conjugate variable to the frequency is the oscillator phase (ϕ), such that ∆ν∆ϕ ≥ ħ is obeyed. Phase is difficult to measure and is ignored in
characterizing complex quantum systems.
Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that in many quantum systems the limits to measurement precision imposed by the quantum vacuum zero-point fluctuations (ZPF) can be breached by decreasing the frequency noise at the expense of increasing the phase noise (thus maintaining ∆ν∆ϕ ≥ ħ), while at the same time the variations in frequency, and therefore the energy, are reduced below the ZPF such that the energy becomes “negative.” “Squeezing” is thus the control of quantum fluctuations and corresponding uncertainties, whereby one can squeeze the variance of one (physically important) observable quantity provided the variance in the (physically unimportant) conjugate variable is stretched/increased.
The squeezed quantity possesses an unusually low variance, meaning less variance than would be expected on the basis of the equipartition theorem. We can exploit quantum squeezing to extract energy from one place in the ordinary vacuum at the expense of piling up excess energy elsewhere (Morris and Thorne, 1988).
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
We will need a physics theory of consciousness and psychotronics, along with more experimental data, in order to test the hypothesis in Section 5.1.1 and discover the physical mechanisms that lay behind the psychotronic manipulation of matter. P-Teleportation, if verified, would represent a phenomenon that could offer potential high-payoff military, intelligence and commercial applications. This phenomenon could generate a dramatic revolution in technology, which would result from a dramatic paradigm shift in science. Anomalies are the key to all paradigm shifts!
There are numerous supporters within the U.S. military establishment who comprehend the significance of remote viewing and PK phenomenon, and believe that they could have strategic implications. Bremseth (2001), a U.S. Navy SEAL, attended the Marine War College and studied the Remote Viewing program, and interviewed many of the former program participants. Bremseth then wrote his thesis on the topic, and concluded that the evidence supported continued research and applications of remote viewing.
A research program improving on and expanding, or implementing novel variations of, the Chinese and Uri Geller-type experiments should be conducted in order to generate p-Teleportation phenomenon in the lab. The performances and characteristics of p-Teleportation need to be delineated in order to develop a refined hypothesis. Such a program should be designed so that an operational model for p-Teleportation can be developed and implemented as a prototype. An experimental program similar in fashion to the
Remote Viewing program should be funded at $900,000 – 1,000,000 per year in parallel with a theoretical program funded at $500,000 per year for an initial five-year duration. The role of quantum physics theory and related quantum phenomena (i.e., entanglement and teleportation) in p-Teleportation and psychotronics should be explored in this program (see for example, the Biological Quantum Teleportation recommendation in Section 3.3). An experiment definition study should be conducted first to identify and propose the best experiments for this program, which should be funded at $80,000 for one year.